The Mukanda initiation camp educates and prepares male youths for their social expectations throughout the Bayaka community. Much care is taken with various rituals so as not to displease the ancestral spirits.
The drum was an important instrument for the musical accompaniment of the mukanda ceremonies.
Michel Plancquaert - Les Sociétés Secrètes chez les Bayaka, Louvain, Imprimerie J. Kuyl-Otto, 1930
Arthur P. Bourgeois - Art of the Yaka and Suku, Meudon, Alain and Françoise Chaffin, 1984
Hans Himmelheber - Negerkunst und Negerkünstler, Braunschweig, Klinkhardt & Biermann,1960,
Hans Himmelheber - Zaire 1938/39. Photographic documents on the arts of the Yaka, Pende, Tshokwe and Kuba.