There are five or six distinct types of drum used by the Makonde of Tanzania and Mozambique accompany their various dances and masquerade performances.
The highest-pitched drum usually marks the time, the lowest is the leader.
Most drums are single headed with pegged skins and cylindrical or conical bodies.
The skins are tuned by heating, or sometimes by using tuning-paste.
Dias, Margot - Instrumentos musicais de Moçambique. Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical. Centro de Antropologia Cultural e Social. Lisboa 1986.
Kubik, Gerhard – Musikgeschichte in Bildern : Westafrika. Leipzig 1989