Je anim drum new guinea

Je Anim drum New Guinea / Trommel Papua Neuguinea

Drums provide rhythmic accompaniment for the dances and songs performed during initiation and are said to represent the voices of the spirit world.
Decorated with Christian symbols
Drums were carved with an adze and hollowed out by a slow burning process.
The making of a drum takes a long time; it may take weeks,or even months, for the wood must dry slowly to avoid cracking.
Held in one hand while the other is used to strike the lizard-skin drum head.
Small black pellets of beeswax, used for fine tuning the sound quality of the drum, are attached in a circular pattern around the center of the head.
Tuning is accomplished by heating the head over fire.

Baal, J. van 1966, Dema. Description and Analysis of Marind-Anim Culture South New Guinea). Translation series No. 9. The Hague: Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde.
Wirz, Paul, Die Marind-anim von Hollaendisch Sued-Neu-Guinea. Friederichsen & Co., Hamburg, 1922 - 1925. 2 Vols.
Music in New Guinea – Three studies by Jaap Kunst - `S.Gravenhage-Martinus Nijhoff-1967
Collaer, Paul (1965) : Musikgeschichte in Bildern – Ozeanien. Musikethnologie1. Leipzig.
Fischer, Hans (1958) : Schallgeräte in Ozeanien. Sound-producing instruments in Oceania.
Graf, Walter (1950) : Die musikwissenschaftlichen Phonogramme Rudolf Pöchs von der Nordküste Neuguineas.